File Formats

Last Updated 03/09/2024

Are used to store and transport data. Many open data standards are expressed in one or more of the following:

  • JSON - a lightweight data-exchange and file format easily understood by computers and humans.
  • JSON-LD - Linked Data (LD). enabling a network of standards-based, machine-readable data across the web.
  • RDF-Resource Description Framework which includes a subject, object, and their relationship. Each piece has a URL. RDF is commonly expressed in Turtle format (compact, stackable, human-friendly) and can be expressed (serialized) in JSON-LD, among other formats.
  • OWL-Web Ontology Language, a complex language for taxonomies/classifications built on RDF.
  • XML - Extensible Markup Language, a language and file format similar to HTML that describes data with tags that the developer defines.
  • SKOS - Simple Knowledge Organization System, built on RDF/RDFS.
  • YAML - Yet Another Markup Language, which can parse other formats into a human-friendlier layout.
  • EDI-based standards - Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), a format to transport business documents between organizations and across industries.
  • CSV-Comma-separate Values, a text file that has a specific format that allows data to be saved in a table structured format.

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